ENVE 2610 Spring 2021

ENVE 2610 Spring 2021
Final Project: Energy Brief
Due Electronically: Not Later Than 5:00 PM, 7-May-2021
This is an individual project
Description
This project is focused on issues related to the transition to low-carbon power generation.
This is not an editorial, op-ed or commentary reflecting simply your opinion. This is a technical brief
you should approach from the perspective of an engineer who has been charged with researching an
issue, educating an audience of policymakers/decisionmakers, identifying constraints associated with
the issue, and making recommendations to that audience for transitioning to a low-carbon power
generation future. Your recommendations should include objectives and implementable steps that can
be taken for achieving those objectives, along with the technical, social, economic and political
challenges associated with implementing those steps. Full and complete disclosure of positives and
negatives should underpin your brief.
As such, your brief should include data to support the rationale for the issue you have selected.
Suggested Topics
1. Germany’s Energiewende
• Data source: https://www.energy-charts.de/index.htm
2. Providing electricity to millions of people throughout the world who currently have little or no
access
3. Current or recently proposed policy concepts in the U.S. For example:
• US Energy and Commerce CLEAN Future Act
(https://energycommerce.house.gov/newsroom/press-releases/ec-leaders-introducethe-clean-future-act-comprehensive-legislation-to)
• The Green New Deal (Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, D-NY)
• Manhattan Project (Sen. Lamar Alexander, R-TN)
• A Framework for Climate Action in the U.S. Congress (Rep. Paul Tonko, D-NY)
• Green Real Deal (Rep. Matt Gaetz, R-FL)
• 100 by 50: Transitioning to 100% Renewable Energy by 2050 (Sen. Jeff Merkley, D-OR)
• Other
4. Nuclear power
• Current technologies and advanced Generation-IV technologies
5. Renewable energy (wind, solar, biomass) and battery storage
6. Natural gas
7. Carbon capture and storage
8. Other
Deliverables
1. A 3-4 page Energy Brief (excluding reference section)
• Microsoft Word Format
• 10-point font, Verdana, 1.5 line spacing
• Page numbers, bottom-right
• Introduction
• Individual sections
• Conclusion(s)
• References (not included in the 3-4 page limit)
2. Supporting data
• Original table, graph
• Neatly and professionally formatted
• Not copied and pasted from a separate source
3. References
• Noted in the main text and fully cited in a closing reference section
ENVE 2610 Spring 2021
Final Project: Energy Brief
Due Electronically: Not Later Than 5:00 PM, 7-May-2021
Note: All electronic file submissions must conform to the format as explained in the syllabus (example
below) and must be emailed to Gattie (dgattie@uga.edu) not later than 5:00 PM on May 7, 2021. Any
electronic files that do not conform to formatting requirements, will receive a letter grade deduction.
No late submissions will be accepted.
Lastname Firstname ENVE 2610 Energy Brief Title
Example:
Gattie David ENVE 2610 Power Generation
Grading
Your grade will be based on completeness, thoroughness, grammar, brief appearance, adherence to
guidelines, demonstrated grasp of the topic and evidence of having conducted your own outside
research. Keep in mind that this is not an opinion piece—this is a technical brief of professional
recommendations that should be supported by facts, pragmatism and reality.

The Oroville Dam Disaster

The Oroville Dam Disaster
The Oroville Dam is one of the largest in the U.S.A., existing in California between Lake
Oroville and Feather River (Figure 1). In February 2017, a combination of heavy rainfall and
snowmelt threatened to overflow this dam. The water level, normally well below the maximum
level of the dam, rose to 900 ft at the height of the storm.
To deal with the overflow, the main spillway was employed to reduce the water level in the
reservoir. A sudden, unexpected erosion of the bed of the main spillway significantly reduced its
flow capacity and prompted use of the emergency spillway. The emergency spillway, however,
was unable to manage the high flows necessary to keep the reservoir level stable. As engineers
scrambled to figure out how to repair the main spillway and prevent dam failure, the more than
180,000 people living downstream from the structure and Lake Oroville were evacuated.
You are coming in after the event to figure out what happened. Answer the following questions
and think hard about how you would fix the original dam design.
Figure 1: Schematic of the Oroville Dam, 770 ft tall and set between Lake Oroville and Feather River.
The main spillway is clearly marked, used as an emergency outlet for lake water if it threatens to overtop
the dam.
Question:
Assuming a uniform dam depth, draw the (qualitative) shape of the pressure prism on the dam
and the (qualitative) location of the resulting force for the following two scenarios:

Question:
At the base of the dam there is a set of turbines connecting the reservoir of Lake Oroville to the
Feather River, similar to the scenario sketched in Figure 2. The turbines supply 819 megawatts to
the local electricity grid and have an efficiency 𝜂 = 0.9. Assume a max reservoir level of 770 ft,
an 𝑓 = 0.02 for the pipe, and a negligible minor head loss at the smoothly curved pipe entrance.
Figure 2: Schematic of the turbine located at the base of the dam, with water level 𝑧 = 770 𝑓𝑡 leading to
a pipe of 𝐷 = 35 𝑓𝑡 which begins at level 𝑧 = 70 𝑓𝑡 and ends at 𝑧 = 35 𝑓𝑡. The pipe is length 𝐿1 = 300
𝑓𝑡 before the turbine 𝑇 and length 𝐿2 = 60 𝑓𝑡 after the turbine before the jet outflow.
(a) Determine the head, H1, at the entrance of the turbines as a function of the discharge Q.
(b) Determine the head, H2, at the exit from the turbines as a function of the discharge Q.
(c) Are minor losses or friction losses more important in this pipe system?
(d) With the values of H1 and H2 from (a) and (b), determine the discharge, Q, through the
power plant required to achieve the specified power output (819 MW) from the turbines.
Question:
As the water levels rise, the turbines are shut off and the main spillway is opened to handle the
excess overflow from the lake. The main spillway is made of rough concrete and is 3,000 𝑓𝑡
long, 179 𝑓𝑡 wide, and extends 500 𝑓𝑡 to the river below.
Figure 3: Side view of the Oroville Dam with specific detail given to the spillway crest.
The spillway crown (see detail in Figure 3) acts as a broad-crested weir and has a smoothly
curving transition from horizontal to meet the downstream slope of the dam. The design head,
HD, is the elevation difference between reservoir level and spillway crest.
(a) Assuming the flow from the reservoir passes through critical depth at the spillway crest,
determine this depth, hc, and the discharge, Q, into the spillway as a function of HD.
Evaluate them for HD when the reservoir level reaches 900 𝑓𝑡 above the dam height of
770 𝑓𝑡.
(b) Estimate h1, the depth of flow as it enters the constant slope section after passing the
short smooth transition, at section 1-1. The elevation difference between the crest and
section 1-1 is ∆zc-1 = 10 ft.
(c) Assuming that the flow reaches normal depth at section 2-2, before the transition to
horizontal at the toe of the dam, determine the normal depth, hn = h2, the corresponding
velocity, Vn, and Froude number, Frn. Is the flow sub- or super-critical?
(d) Determine the pressure on the bottom of the spillway channel (i.e. at section 2-2), pbn,
corresponding to the solution in (c).
(e) Estimate the shear stress along the bed at point 2-2. Does any part of this solution cause
concern from an engineering perspective?
Question:
The dam crisis existed because the concrete bed of the spillway caved in at the location seen in
Figure 4, even though only a fraction of the spillway design flow rate was being used.
Discuss, in brief., one possible explanation for this erosion, and explain the engineering solution
you would use to prevent a similar failure in the future. Feel free to seek out reports of the actual
dam collapse, which are available in the public domain, for inspiration.
Figure 4: Sketch of the dam system, with design flowrates for the different portions of the system given
in cfs.

Narrative essay

An essay in which you tell a personal story and make a point is called a narrative essay. The purpose of this narrative is to entertain and expound on the significance of the experience. Narrative essay give you a chance to display your writing skills clearly and entertainingly. A writer is expected to think about where their story begins and ends and convey their idea engagingly.

A narrative essay contains detailed narratives of events, interactions, and experiences during a particular period. It includes a vivid plot.

How to write a narrative essay?

In college and high school, you write numerous kinds of academic essays. Narrative essays are the most basic types of academic essays. It is write just like a simple story. Here is a step-by-step guide to writing an outstanding essay.

Typically, a five-paragraph narrative essay has one introduction, three body paragraphs, and one conclusion paragraph. If necessary, you can change the number of body paragraphs according to the topic.

It typically consists of these five elements: plot, characters, setting, conflict, and theme.

  • Plot

It is what you intend to share in your story. It is a representation of the events that occurr in your account.

  • Characters

Your characters are the people involve in the incident. You need to mention every one of them, regardless of whether they are primary or side characters.

  • Setting

The setting is the specific location in which the event took place. It could be your house, a school, or almost anywhere you happened to be at the time.

 

  • Conflict

It is a problem that the characters face during the incident. A moment of tension in the story is considered a conflict that needs to be resolved.

  • Theme

A narrative essay’s theme elaborates on the writer’s reasons for choosing the topic and the story’s overall purpose.

How long should an article be?

The narrative essay needs to be structured according to academic rules. Not only should you follow the rules of academic writing, but you also need to write a conclusion. Please explain why the story is meaningful and what the audience might want to do after reading it.

Purpose of a narrative

The purpose of narrative essays is all about telling a story to your readers. That’s their whole point. In addition to writing about your personal experience, you also ought to explain to readers why your account is essential to share.

Example of narrative

Narrators are people who recount events. The following is an example of a narrator telling the story from his point of view: I’m going to share a story with you. The story isn’t easy to follow since it’s about one of the worst things that ever happened to me.

How to conclude a narrative essay?

As an alternative to projecting time forward, reveal the final scene in real-time. It would help if you described a specific physical action or a verbal exchange, or a combination of those to give the reader a solid sense of closure. The conclusion should make the reader feel, not dictate.

Rhetorical essay

Essay writing

An essay is a piece of writing that has a specific purpose of informing or persuading. Moreover, There are many different kinds of essays, but they are typically categorized into four types: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive. Here, We are discussing Rhetorical essay.

Essay analysis

To analyze an essay, you must note these three steps:

  1. Decide on a Topic. Begin by choosing the elements or areas of your topic that you will analyze.
  2. Ask many questions, do some outside research to answer these questions, and take notes on each element you examine.
  3. Conclusions can be draw.

Rhetorical essay 

The study of rhetoric deals with how writers and speakers use language to influence an audience. This nonfiction essay breaks down a nonfiction work into parts and then explains how the parts work together to create a particular effect, whether to persuade, entertain, or inform.

Rhetorical essay outline 

           Whenever we write an essay, we first make our outline. Outlines are as important as human backbones. When you make a good outline for your essay, it will look well-structured and understandable. It makes your essay more accessible for the reader to understand if it has a clear outline.

The traditional essay outline is used in rhetorical essays. An essay is divided into four sections, each with five paragraphs.

  1. Introduction 

The rhetorical analysis introduction has three essential components:

  • The hook
  • Facts and figures
  • Thesis statements.

Rhetorical analysis outline:

           It is less concerned about what the author says than how they say it: their goals, techniques, and appeal to the audience. The structure of a rhetorical analysis is similar to other essays: an introduction that presents the thesis, a body of the paper that analyzes the text directly, and a conclusion to wrap things up.

Rhetorical analysis:

Firstly, The purpose of a rhetorical analysis is to assess how well the author persuaded, informed, or entertained his or her audience. Secondly, An analysis of rhetoric should examine the rhetorician’s objectives, methods and tools, examples of those methods, and their effectiveness.

How to start a rhetorical analysis? 

Accordingly, Begin by structuring your rhetorical essay with a conventional five-paragraph format. In addition, An essay may look like this, introduction, logos, logos, ethos, pathos, pathos, conclusion.

Ap Lang rhetorical analysis essay:

Therefore,  It is a rhetorical question in which you evaluate and discuss any rhetorical strategies used by the author in the given prompt.

Rhetorical analysis conclusion:

The concept of rhetorical analysis should be summarize in conclusion. This way, you should restate your main points after reviewing a rhetorical analysis conclusion example.Furthermore, A summary of your arguments must be the only thing you should state.

Conclusion

Moreover, It is best if you get an outline from your professor. If not, you will need to outline your own with the help of the internet. Here are some tips to make your outline easier.

  • The topic must be appropriately read, analyze, and search.
  • In your outline, please point out the essential words and support them with evidence.
  • Once you have completed your outline, you may begin drafting your essay.

 

 

Types of sentences

What is a sentence?

The set of words serves as a whole in its own right, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of one main clause and possibly one or more subordinate clauses.Types of sentences are discussed here..

You can write sentences that are declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. These worksheets will teach your students how to recognize and identify these different kinds of sentences. Activities include choosing the correct ending punctuation mark for the type of sentence. Moreover, writing original sentences based on the given prompts, unscrambling sentences to determine the type, rewriting sentences to make them different types of sentences, giving details to make simple sentences into complex sentences, and more.

Types of sentence

There are four types of sentence

  • Declarative sentence.
  • Imperative sentence.
  • Interrogative sentence.
  • Exclamatory sentence.

Declarative sentence

In other words, a declarative sentence expresses an opinion or makes a statement. It usually ends with a period.

An example of this sentence type:

“I want to be a good writer.”

“My friend’s a really good writer.” (expresses an opinion)

Imperative sentence

In an imperative sentence, a statement is given as a command or request. It is usually followed by a period but can be follow by an exclamation point under certain circumstances.

An example of this sentence type:

“Please sit down.”

I want you to sit down now!”

Interrogative sentence

Interrogative sentences ask a question, and they usually start with who, what, when, where, why, how, or who.

Here are some examples:

When will you submit your writing assignment

Do you know what the weather will be like tomorrow?

Exclamatory sentence

An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation point and is meant to express great feelings, such as consternation, delight, or anger.

Examples of this type of sentence:

“It’s too dangerous to climb that mountain!”

My book report got me an A!

These above are the common types of a sentence that you must learn.

Types of sentence based on the structure

Simple

Simple sentences have just one independent clause, which means they communicate an entire thought and contain a subject and a verb.

Complex

A simple sentence contains one independent clause, which means it communicates a complete thought and contains both a subject and a verb.

Compound

The clauses are separate with either a comma and a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon in a compound sentence. On rare occasions, they can be separate by a colon.

compound–complex

A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. The clauses don’t need to be in any particular order; as long as at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause are present, you’ve got a compound-complex sentence.

 

Descriptive essay Tips

A descriptive essay describes something, a person or object, an event or place, an emotion or experience, or an idea. A descriptive essay aims to provide readers with enough specifics about a topic so that they can visualize it. Here are some Descriptive essay Tips.

Descriptive writing is used to describe a particular subject. Good descriptive writing can take the form of newspaper articles, book reports, research papers, and accounts of a single event, as well as travelogues and memoirs of personal experiences.

The power of description

In a descriptive essay, the author is free to speak from personal experience, owing to the lack of structure used in more conventional academic writing.

How to write a descriptive essay?

The key to writing a descriptive essay is to provide your audience with a visual representation by engaging their sense of smell, sight, touch, taste and sound. If you can achieve this, your essay will be a success, but you have a lot of work to do. A descriptive essay begins with the first steps that lay the foundation for the entire piece.

  • Decide on a topic
  • Make a statement
  • Get your senses right
  • Make an outline
  • Conclusion
  • Examine your essay.
  • Complete the task.

Approaches of descriptive essay

There are two classic approaches to descriptive essay

  • Personal essay

In the first approach, the personal essay has much in common with the narrative essay since it describes an experience through the writer’s feelings and responses.

  • Formal description

The second method of writing descriptive essays is the formal description. This approach is more similar to that for an argumentative essay, where you aim to convey critical information. However, the formal description aims to describe something in detail, according to a clear structure, rather than convey an argument.

Outline of descriptive essay

The outline for a descriptive essay consists of the following:

  • This is an introduction.
  • A hook sentence.
  • Background information.
  • Thesis statements.
  • Paragraphs for the body.
  • topic sentence.
  • Details of the senses
  • Accurate information.

Format of a descriptive essay

The descriptive essay consists of three components

  • Introduction
  • Paragraphs
  • Conclusion

Descriptive essay Tips

The key to writing an effective descriptive essay is to find ways to bring your subject to life for the reader. Unlike more formal essay types, you can describe things more abstractly here.

  • Figures of speech are helpful.
  • Make use of your senses
  • choose the appropriate words.

How long should be a descriptive essay tips?

The essay typically consists of a five-paragraph structure, including an introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion paragraph. However, you might also try using sections instead, making each paragraph as long as you want for the essay’s body.

How to conclude a descriptive essay?

The conclusion of the descriptive essay should sum up all of the main points made in the body text. You will need to finish your paper by writing a concluding sentence related to the main point of your paper. Once you have done this, the paper is now complete.

You own a portfolio that is composed of stocks and bonds. You decided to add a cryptocurrency to the portfolio. Four major cryptocurrencies are available in the market and they are BTC (Bitcoin), ETH (Ether), XRP (Ripple), and LTC (Litecoin). You are going to allocate 10 percent of the portfolio to only one of these cryptocurrencies.

You own a portfolio that is composed of stocks and bonds. You decided to add a cryptocurrency to the portfolio. Four major cryptocurrencies are available in the market and they are BTC (Bitcoin), ETH (Ether), XRP (Ripple), and LTC (Litecoin). You are going to allocate 10 percent of the portfolio to only one of these cryptocurrencies. Before investing the funds in a cryptocurrency, you estimated the expected return of the overall portfolio and the standard deviation of returns of the portfolio. The table shows you those numbers (ER means expected return; SD means the standard deviation of returns; RF stands for the risk-free rate of return).

Which combination should you select and why?

RF = 3%

ER SD
Original Portfolio + BTC 18% 7%
Original Portfolio + ETH 21% 12%
Original Portfolio + XRP 34% 20%
Original Portfolio + LTC 15% 9%

Best Way to write Analytical Essay

An analytical essay requires you to present some logical argument, or claim, about what you are analyzing. Firstly, Analytical essays usually focus on how the piece is published.

An analytical essay is a paper in which you argue one side of the argument and then analyze both sides of the argument using supporting arguments.

Analytical writing guide

There are seven steps to writing an essay.

  • Firstly, You must choose a point of view.
  • Secondly, Write a thesis statement at the end of an introductory paragraph.
  • Thirdly, An Organized Form of the body for essay
  • At last, Make sure your topics are clear.
  • Put evidence in your essay.
  • Provide space for opposing opinions.

Purpose of analytical writing

Firstly, The analytical essay describes the characteristics of a concept, idea, object, or even a character. The major aim of the analysis is to enhance the understanding of readers. Secondly, Analysis might include a process, definition, classification, and division, or comparison and contrast.

Analytical style of writing

University writing typically describes what you have read by reviewing it against other evidence. Furthermore, Analytical writing shows the thought processes you used to conclude and discusses the implications of this.

Analytical sample

Moreover, Any procedure involving removing a sample of any size from an object or alters an object macroscopically is considered an analytical sampling procedure.

Analysis in research paper

During an analytical research paper, your research becomes an expert on a topic and presents parts of the topic from your perspective.

Moreover, By analyzing something, you examine it element by element and reorganize its parts in a fashion that feels natural and satisfying to you.

Analyze paragraph

The analytical paragraph proves a thesis by stating evidence in support of it. Moreover, It is usually a body paragraph. The topic sentence of an analytical paragraph is the thesis if it stands alone (entablature only).

Literary analysis essay outline

Furthmore, Great literary analysis essays come with evidence from the text supporting your ideas and explaining your ideas. Meanwhile, The literary analysis essay outline depends on

  • Stay focused on the topic.
  • Understand the plot, the author’s idea, and the characters of the work you are analyzing by reading it thoroughly.
  • Gather evidence.
  • Make a plan.
  • Create a thesis statement for your paper.
  • Revision and writing process.

How to end the essay?

Moreover, The ending of an essay should be good that impresses the reader

  • Paraphrase the thesis statement by making the same point with different words.
  • Review your supporting arguments.
  • That means paraphrasing how you proved the thesis by reviewing all your arguments.
  • Make a connection between your closing statement and the essay hook.

 

What is research paper?

Researchers perform systematic inquiries that involve collecting data, documentation of critical information, analysis of that data, and interpretation of the information, according to methods prescribed by specific professional fields. It’s a way to write effective research paper

Essential parts of research paper:

A research paper contains the following elements:

  • Page title
  • A brief introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Framework for conceptualizing
  • Research methods
  • Data analysis
  • As a result
  • The Implications of Data Analysis

How to start research?

The best way to write a research paper is to minimize the painful process of assessing the quality of scientific sources by maximizing your efforts.

  • Read the research paper
  • decide on a research paper topic
  • Research the facts and examples
  • Write an outline for your paper
  • Write a thesis

How to choose a topic for research?

Here are some tips for selecting the perfect topic:

  • It ought to be interesting;
  • An appropriate topic is feasible;
  • The area of your research should be limit;
  • Before starting your assignment, you need to get the approval of your professor.

Research title

A good title for academic research papers has several characteristics. It should convey precisely the subject and scope of the study. Please write in a manner that creates a positive impression on the reader and stimulates their interest.

Tips for writing introduction of research paper

Your introduction should first tell the reader what your topic is and why it is exciting or essential. Why should a good introduction have these key elements?

  • a captivating hook
  • Background information is also essential.
  • The thesis statement must also be provable and specific.

Hooks for Research paper

Hooks are an opening statement (which is usually the first sentence) of an essay that attempts to grab the reader’s attention so that they will continue reading. There are numerous books, including a question, a quote, a statistic, and anecdotes.

  • Get started by shaking some stuff.
  • Introduce the problem.
  • Descriptive language and vivid imagery are used.
  • Begin with an interesting background

Can I use the first person in a research paper

It’s nothing but old habits that have kept us from using “I” and “we” in academic writing. That’sThat’s correct. You can use these words! However, the academic community continued to use first-person pronouns until the 1920s, when third-person and passive voice constructions (i.e., boring) come. Recently, however, we have begun to produce active and engaging prose that incorporates the first person.

Even so, we should still follow some generally accepted rules when using “I” and “we.” Abstract, introduction and discussion pieces are more likely to be written in the first person, while methods and results sections will be in the third or passively. Don’t use the first person when:

  • This would bring into question the objectivity of your results and create the impression that your perspective is unique
  • Your study be conducted in a manner that minimizes biases as much as possible
  • Expressions like “I think” are unnecessary as statements that arena aren’t cited should not be used in your analysis

5 Steps on how to research a topic

To completely comprehend your assignment, you have to research a topic, as this will assist you in doing research effectively and choosing the proper research tools. This research guide of sorts will help you to do research effectively and to utilize the best tools possible for your success.

What is research?

In research, facts relating to a particular concern or problem are systematically studied using scientific methods. Research usually involves both inductive and deductive methods.

Five steps of how to research a topic:

To gather research information, here are a few steps that will help you in your search.

  • Examine the topics you selected.
  • Choose a topic
  • Authentication
  • Research this topic more thoroughly.
  • Explain your topic in detail.

Examine the topics you selected

One of the best ways to research a topic is to examine the selected issue and decide which case is most appropriate for your research. It’s best to find a topic of your interest and don’t run away from it. You must read and consume news and internet content about that topic.

Choose a topic

The topic you choose is complex and seems obvious, but many students select difficult issues from their early stages. It is better to begin by learning about it, finding out how widespread it is and how much data you can find from the internet.

You must select a topic you are passionate about, as that is helpful to you in achieving your writing objectives on time and without feeling stressed by it.

When choosing a topic, you need to answer all your questions first and then select the unanswered question from that topic. When, where, what, how, and why maybe your questions.

Authentications

Authentication is the next step, which is difficult, but after that, the rest of the work will be easy. This step helps you decide whether your topic has depth or not.

To be able to discover relevant information from reputable sources, you will need to gather reliable facts. Because some websites, apps lack credible information on topics, It’s a suggestion to investigate websites as to who, when, and where Data is Present.

Research the topic more thoroughly.

You must gather detailed information on the topic you have selected. It’s maybe a little bit exciting if it is a topic you have chosen yourself. It’s essential to go in-depth with the subject. You should read the history of the case, its background, and its applications, or whatever is necessary to the issue. If you clear this step correctly, then your research topic will go amazing.

To make the process easy, you will need to take notes of your information and arrange them accordingly.

Explain your topic in detail

After moving from all these steps, you reach the final stage, and the steps are straightforward after getting information about the topic. This step demands the issue be written in detailed its definition, background, explanation, and conclusion to impress the reader.

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